|Historical versions of hookah appearance. Part 2
American version. Hypothesis of American origin of hookah appeared as result of researches that were conducted in the beginning of XX century by L. Wiener. He has founded out that even American Indians have used pumpkin for tobacco smoking, letting smoke from smoldering tobacco though it. Wiener affirmed that tobacco smoking was imported from America to Africa few centuries earlier before Europeans came to American continent. I. Van Sertima has enriched this hypothesis, trying to prove that African people lived in America even before official discovery of this continent and just they brought method of tobacco smoking with use of pipe filled with water.
Persian version. Hypothesis of Persian origin of hookah is especially supported by published researches of B.M. Du Toit. Becoming interested of hashish origin, he repeatedly mentioned use for hashish smoking - "dakka" - of water pipe.
African version. Hypothesis of African origin of hookah was set out by specialists A. Dunhill and J.E. Philips. Dunhill considers "dakka" - water pipe, used by tribes that live on South of African continent as Hookah's predecessor. Regarding hypothesis of the second scientist, they are based on detailed research of data that were received as a result of excavations in Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania and other places of African continent.
European version. Hypothesis of European origin of hookah also is defended by some scientists that study tobacco history. They consider that modern Hookah has form of American water pipe that was used in Mediterranean region by Europeans in XVI - XVII centuries. Researchers continued systematic archaeological excavations in Southern and Eastern Europe during entire XX century and would be able to give incontestable evidences of water pipes use for tobacco smoking on this continent long before year 1600.